Now that this is done…
AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS
This key may be used to answer the following questions. Choose ONE answer per question.
a) I & II only
b) I & III only
c) II only
d) I, II & IV only
e) I, II, III & IV
1. Amino acids consist of
I. Amino group
II. Carboxylic acid group
III. Phosphate group
2. The bond formed between 2 amino acids is a
I. Disulphide bond
II. Peptide bond
III. Hydrogen bond
IV. Glycosidic bond
3. The conversion reactions that convert cysteine to cystine, vice versa, are known as
4. Functions of proteins
IV. Provide energy
5. Types of R-groups
IV. Negatively charged
6. Amino acids and Protein tests include:
II. Protein precipitation
III. Seliwanoff’s test
IV. Biuret reaction
7. A peptide bond
I. Is a covalent bind between α-amino group of amino acids to a carboxyl group of another
II. Links together long un-branched chains
III. Needs H2O when bonding
IV. Produces H2O upon bonding
8. Where is/are the location/s of the side-chains of the amino acids positioned on the cylindrical helix?
I. Along the inside
II. Along the outside
III. Randomly positioned within the inner space
IV. All side-chains are removed upon formation of the helix
9. Essential amino acid/s:
10. Which amino acid/s increases brain function and promotion of the central nervous system?
Choose ONE answer per question.
1. An allosteric enzyme
a) Is an enzyme molecule that is denatured too quickly
b) Possesses more than one active site
c) Is an enzyme molecule that binds with inhibitors only when present
d) Is an enzyme that changes shape to fit the substrate
e) Speeds up chemical reactions
2. The number of molecules of substrates converted to product per enzyme molecule per second is called the…
a) Turnover number / kcat
b) Optimum number
c) Maximum reaction rate / Vmax
d) Michaelis-Menten Constant / Km
e) None of the above
3. Fill in the blanks: Enzymes __________________ the free energies of reactants/products therefore ___________________ the equilibrium of the reaction.
b) Change/ increasing
c) Does not change/does not change
d) Does not change/changing
4. Which common example of an inhibitor is used as a medicinal drug?
c) Ascorbic acid
5. Enzymes act as
a) Protein molecules
b) Reaction stimulators
c) Precursor molecules
d) Binding site for substrates
e) Biological catalysts
6. Group specificity of enzymes is where the enzyme molecules will perform only with molecules that possess specific functional groups. Examples of such molecules are
a) Phosphate groups
b) Amino groups
c) Methyl groups
d) All of the above
e) None of the above
7. Selective qualities of an enzyme are collectively recognized as its
a) Rate of reaction
b) Active site
e) None of the above
8. The active site of an enzyme is generally a
9. The interactions between the active site and the substrate are
a) Hydrogen bonding
b) Van Der Waals forces
c) Hydrophobic interactions
d) All of the above
e) None of the above
10. Uncompetitive inhibition
a) Vmax remains constant, Km increases
b) Vmax increases, Km decreases
c) Vmax decreases, Km decreases
d) Vmax increases, Km increases
e) Vmax decreases, Km remains constant
Find answers here: https://naribiochemwiz007.wordpress.com/2016/10/18/answers-multiple-choice-exam-questions-1/
Raub, James A., Monique Mathieu-Nolf, Neil B. Hampson, and Stephen R. Thom. “Carbon monoxide poisoning — a public health perspective.” Toxicology: 145(1): 1-14. Accessed 04th April 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300483X99002176
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning — A Public Health Perspective
Firstly, let’s talk about what is carbon monoxide. It is a highly toxic gas and is odourless, colourless, taste-less and also does not irritate any part of the human body. Basically, detecting carbon monoxide is more or less, futile. In my opinion, I would refer to CO as…*dum dum dummmmm* THE SILENT KILLER! Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced when there is not enough oxygen available for fuel or gas to react fully in order to create organic matter such as carbon dioxide and water as the end result. This lack in oxygen is called incomplete combustion. In this present state of the world that we live in, almost everything runs on fuel, all of which may act as sources of production of this life-threatening emission. Not only is carbon monoxide most popularly known to deteriorate the ozone layer, it is also known as one of the world’s deadliest gas. Over-exposure of CO to humans can be blamed to the improper waste disposal by the sources of this Carbon monoxide gas.
There are numerous sources of carbon monoxide, here are some to name a few:
- Gas heaters
- Wood and gas stoves
- Electricity generators
- Factory machinery
- And, of course, the most popular of them all; automobile exhaust
In this article, the authors James, Monique, Neil and Stephen, investigated the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning in individuals. Their theory was that CO was the merciless suspect behind most of the fatal poisoning occurrences around the world. From their research, it was noted that many of the fatal and drastic cases of this type of poisoning was not reported and perhaps misdiagnosed by doctors and health authorities where, as a result, James, Monique, Neil and Stephen could not derive upon an exact number of CO poisoning deaths or cases that may have occurred. Symptoms related to the exposure of CO can as so much range from mild headaches and delicate cardiovascular as well as neurobehavioral effects as a result of low concentrations of CO to much higher concentrations which can result in unconsciousness or even death due to chronic or acute exposure to such concentrations.
They noticed that the signs and symptoms as well as the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning contributes to the weak association with carboxyheamoglobin (COHb) levels distinguished when the individual was admitted into the hospital. But, however, due to the fact that CO poisoning is a diagnosis that is usually ignored; these authors realised that the significance of measuring levels of COHb in conspicuous settings cannot be bypassed.
Some of the consequences/symptoms of CO intoxication and by extension, CO poisoning, are headaches, dizziness, nausea, disorientation, visual confusion as well as weakness can occur regularly. These authors learned that death, as a result of CO poisoning are mostly related to cardiac complications. They arrived to this conclusion as they noted that myocardial tissues (cardiac muscle) are extremely sensitive to the hypoxic effects of CO. This means that the heart reacts to the loss of oxygen in the body that is caused by carbon monoxide intoxication.
They, the authors, discovered that a serious case of CO poisoning can induce hypotension, lethal arrhythmias as well as electrocardiographic changes (heart disturbances) and pulmonary edema. This is fluid accommodation in the air spaces of the lungs. Acute CO poisoning can also disrupt the neurological system as it is disrupted causing some disorientations in vision, confusion and coma. The authors figured that the most deceptive and disruptive effect of CO poisoning may be the growth of late neuropsychiatric impairment within as low as 2 days to as late as 28 days after the initiation of the poisoning and the slow resolution of neurobehavioral consequences.
Carbon monoxide poisoning was also studied during the period of pregnancy. This is very dangerous on behalf of the mother as it increases the risk for complications to arise and can also result in fetal death.
It is then understood that carbon monoxide poisoning is not an unusual misfortune as it can happen to anyone who has intoxicated severe amounts and can occur frequently. It also has various consequences and with extreme amounts, can lead to death.
I had fun doing this review; I actually did this in a lot less time than I had hoped. I was always interested in this topic of carbon monoxide poisoning as I was told about it a few years ago and never really knew much about it. On doing this review, I have now fully understood why it is considered a poison when it is intoxicated an also what makes it a poison. I feel that relief now that both of my published paper reviews are completed. It’s like a big weight has been lifted off my shoulders. THANK YOU GOD!!!!
Happy danceeee!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 😀
Helms, Jennifer E., and Claudia P. Barone. “Physiology and Treatment of Pain.” Critical Care Nurse Journal. 2011. Accessed 1st April 2013. http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/28/6/38.full
Physiology and treatment of pain
This article deals with whether or not men or women experience the same amount of pain and if younger and older people experience the same amount of pain as well. Experiencing pain can be caused by any physical injury or any discomfort in physical well-being such as headaches. It must be noted however, that every pain is different and each experience of pain is different to each individuals and shows the person’s physical, emotional, psychological and cognitive makeup. Pain is experienced due to stimuli in the body alarming the body that it is in harm or danger.
This stimulus is provided by nerves. When these impulses are stimulated, they send messages to the brain or spinal cord via nerve impulses so the body could react to stay out of danger or to know that an injury has occurred (Descartes, 1644). Central summation can be defined as the transferring of a lump sum of messages from the affected area, to the spinal cord. The detection involves the central nervous system which includes the brain, spinal cord and nerve impulses. The perception if pain is explained by the gate theory proposed by Melzack in 1965. This explains that mechanisms within the brain controls the amount of nerve impulses reaches the brain from the peripheral fibers to the central nervous system. A closed gate allows less impulses hence less pain is experienced and an open gate allows more impulses, hence more pain is experienced. In 1999 however he explained of the body-self neuromatrix, which explains each person having a unique genetic makeup and matrix of neurons which allows them to experience pain differently. This may give difference in pain experiences between men, women, the elderly and the younger children.
With sex based differences, women report pain experiences more frequently than men and have lower thresholds or pain tolerance. This may be because of difference in muscle tone, difference in brain and spinal cord make up, genetic, roles in society, sex hormones and neuron matrix make up and stress. Studies have shown that brain activity between men and women differ during painful experience but remain the same when normal. This showed that difference in sex played a role in pain experiences, although findings were not clear. In children, it was believed that an infant undeveloped nervous system will cause them to experience less pain but this is not true. A child with experienced pain, will have a greater pain perception than a child that does not have the same experience, hence the child would be more tolerable to that pain. Older people may experience different pain as they get older. This is because elderly rely on second pain or slow C fibers and may describe pain as burning whereas younger children rely on fast A fibres and may describe pain as sharp or pricking. Elderly also show a slower reaction time to pain. This may be because as ageing occur, communication skills, cognitive abilities and other physical abilities such as reflexes to pain may be impaired due to ageing. Pain may also be taken as something else besides pain such as delirium. Pain does not diminish with age as other senses. The tolerance for pain however grows as a person moves from infantry to adulthood. However with ageing pain may have a larger impact on a human as with age, physical well being of a person is reduce, such as skin becomes weaker therefore pain will be greater and damages could easily occur.
Pain does not diminish with age, but it can be more tolerable. Pain experiences between men and women differ due to physical attributes, genetic, social differences and environmental conditions and neuron matrix make up, but less is still known on this topic. Men are more tolerable to pain than women. Elderly have a longer reaction time to pain than younger people do. (Maybe this is why men are so heartless!!!!!)
Pain can also be of different types such as acute pain, which as a biological pain that is a biological process which indicates illness and injury, while chronic is the pain that occurs after an injury and occurs longer than expected healing time. Each human react differently to different types of injury and pain and therefore each individual is different and respond differently to pain.
This paper seemed to be very interesting. From the paper it was interesting to learn that pain does not diminish and that more is not known about why women are less tolerable to pain. The paper did give better understanding and knowledge about the topic presented as it gave a well outlined, organized article on pain and how it affects different people. It was interesting to learn about the different theories on the central nervous system presented by Descartes and Melzack. The paper provided good information about pain and how pain affects different people. One done! Only one more to go! 😀
Lipids are large, diverse molecules linked by the property of being insoluble in water. Along with proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids, lipids are one of the four main types of organic macromolecules necessary for life’s functioning. Lipids are involved in how the body stores energy, regulates biological processes, and maintains structural integrity at the cellular level.
Lipids (fat) at is also known as a triglyceride. It is made up of a molecule known as glycerol that is connected to one, two, or three fatty acids. Glycerol is the backbone of all fats and is made up of a three-carbon chain that connects the fatty acids together. A fatty acid is just a long chain of carbon atoms connected to each other.
Saturated and Unsaturated
There are two kinds of fats, saturated andunsaturated. Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond in one of the fatty acids. A double bond happens when four electrons are shared or exchanged in a bond. They are much stronger than single bonds with only two electrons. Saturated fats have no double bonds.
FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS:
- Energy store
- Major component of the phospholipid bilayer in cell membranes
- Transmission of information in cells
- Metabolism in cells
Essential fatty acids are:
–> as they sound, fats that are essential or important for the human body. Some essential fatty acids are necessary for your a healthy lifestyle. In their absense, serious health problems and issues can occur. Two essential fatty acids are:
- Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids
- Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids